the Wartburg name dates back to 1898, but had been long dead when the East German VEB Automobilwerk Eisenach revived it for its new range of upper-middle class saloons in 1956. The first Wartburg was an updated version of the IFA F9, now powered by a three-cylinder two-stroke engine driving the front wheels.
The equally advanced 353 arrived in 1965, and proved reasonably successful in export markets well into the 1970s. However, Wartburg found itself starved of funds, and couldn't replace its ageing twostroke engine. The company stagnated, and only became competitive again late in 1988. Too late: Wartburg died in 1991. Its factory is now owned by Opel.